Role of Fracturing Fluid on the Breakdown Pressure of Tight Sandstone Rocks

(2018) Role of Fracturing Fluid on the Breakdown Pressure of Tight Sandstone Rocks. Masters thesis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

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Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique which increases the hydrocarbon production by inducing fractures in the rock formation. The induced fractures in the reservoir serve as highways for faster hydrocarbon movement. The process is carried out by injecting fracturing fluid which primarily contains gelling agent, crosslinker, bactericide, fluid loss additive, friction reducer, clay stabilizer, buffer, breaker and proppant mixed in a base fluid. Fracturing fluids are carefully selected for each rock formation. A Tight gas reservoir is commonly referred to as a low-permeability reservoir. Tight gas accounts for about 7 % of the world’s hydrocarbon resources which is about the same as the conventional gas (9 %). Enormous quantities of natural gas are present in these tight gas reservoirs. Unlocking these reservoirs is fairly challenging due to the amount of complexities associated with them. Geomechanics plays a key role in the extraction of hydrocarbon from tight gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing is an integral part of geomechanics and is an essential operation to achieve economical production. The importance of fully understanding the fracturing process is critical in properly developing an efficient hydraulic fracturing plan. It’s a robust technique but there are still several uncertainties associated in its implementation. Therefore, this study aims to address some of the challenges for tight sandstone in the areas of geomechanics and hydraulic fracturing. The objective of this research is to develop an efficient experimental setup to determine the breakdown pressure of tight sandstone rocks. Effect of the type of fracturing fluid on breakdown pressure, effect of saturating fluid on the breakdown pressure and the geomechanical properties of tight sandstone rocks is studied in this research.

Arabic Abstract

التكسير الهيدروليكي هو تقنية تحفيز جيدة تزيد من إنتاج الهيدروكربونات عن طريق إحداث كسور في النسيج الصخري. إن الكسور المستحثة في الخزان تعمل كمسارات سريعة لحركة الهيدروكربونات. يتم تنفيذ العملية عن طريق حقن سائل التكسير الذي يحتوي في المقام الأول على عامل التبلور (crosslinker) و مبيد للجراثيم و اضافات لتقليل فقد السؤائل و مخفض الاحتكاك و متوازن ومضيفات للتكسير و صخور صغيرة لمنع اغلاق الكسور بعد العملية. يتم اختيار سوائل تكسير بعناية لكل نوع من الطبقات. وتشكل خزانات الغاز المنخفضة النفاذية حوالي 7 ٪ من الموارد النفطية في العالم وهي تقريبا نفس الغاز التقليدي (9٪). وتوجد كميات هائلة من الغاز الطبيعي في خزانات الغاز المنخفضة النفاذية. احداث كسور في هذه الخزانات يشكل تحديا كبيرا نظرا لكمية التعقيدات المرتبطة بها. تلعب الجيومكانيكا دورا رئيسيا في استخراج الهيدروكربون من خزانات الغاز المنخفضة النفاذية. و يعتبر التكسير الهيدروليكي هو جزء لا يتجزأ من الجيومكانيك وهو عملية أساسية لتحقيق الإنتاج الاقتصادي. أهمية الفهم الكامل لعملية التكسير أمر بالغ الأهمية في وضع خطة التكسير بشكل صحيح. انها تقنية قوية ولكن لا تزال هناك العديد من التساؤلات المرتبطة بتنفيذه. لذلك، تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى معالجة بعض التحديات التي تواجه خزانات الحجر الرملي المنخفضة النفاذية في مجالات الجيومكانيكا والتكسير الهيدروليكي. ان الهدف من هذا البحث هو تطوير المسار التجريبي لتحديد انهيار الضغط لصخور الحجر الرملي المنخفضة النفاذية. في هذا البحث تم دراسة تأثير نوع سائل التكسير على ضغط الانهيار وتأثير سائل التشبع على ضغط الانهيار والخصائص الجيومكانية لصخور الحجر الرملي المنخفضة النفاذية.

English Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique which increases the hydrocarbon production by inducing fractures in the rock formation. The induced fractures in the reservoir serve as highways for faster hydrocarbon movement. The process is carried out by injecting fracturing fluid which primarily contains gelling agent, crosslinker, bactericide, fluid loss additive, friction reducer, clay stabilizer, buffer, breaker and proppant mixed in a base fluid. Fracturing fluids are carefully selected for each rock formation. A Tight gas reservoir is commonly referred to as a low-permeability reservoir. Tight gas accounts for about 7 % of the world’s hydrocarbon resources which is about the same as the conventional gas (9 %). Enormous quantities of natural gas are present in these tight gas reservoirs. Unlocking these reservoirs is fairly challenging due to the amount of complexities associated with them. Geomechanics plays a key role in the extraction of hydrocarbon from tight gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing is an integral part of geomechanics and is an essential operation to achieve economical production. The importance of fully understanding the fracturing process is critical in properly developing an efficient hydraulic fracturing plan. It’s a robust technique but there are still several uncertainties associated in its implementation. Therefore, this study aims to address some of the challenges for tight sandstone in the areas of geomechanics and hydraulic fracturing. The objective of this research is to develop an efficient experimental setup to determine the breakdown pressure of tight sandstone rocks. Effect of the type of fracturing fluid on breakdown pressure, effect of saturating fluid on the breakdown pressure and the geomechanical properties of tight sandstone rocks is studied in this research.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: Petroleum
Petroleum > Well Completion and Stimulation
Petroleum > Drilling Engineering
Divisions: College Of Engineering Sciences > Petroleum Engineering Dept
Committee Advisor: Abdulraheem, Abdulazeez
Committee Members: Mahmoud, Mohamed and Al Shehri, Dhafer and Fraim, Michael
Depositing User: ARQAM MUQTADIR (g201078980)
Date Deposited: 23 May 2019 14:19
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2019 21:37
URI: http://eprints.kfupm.edu.sa/id/eprint/140599